Degree Of Agreement Variable

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Investigations can contain many types of questions; These questions are often referred to as variables. There are a few types of basic variables. It is important to understand the different types of variables, as they can lead to different types of data and orientation analyses. Kalantri et al. considered the accuracy and reliability of the pallor as a tool for detecting anemia. [5] They concluded that “clinical evaluation of pallor in cases of severe anaemia may exclude and govern modestly.” However, the inter-observer agreement for pallor detection was very poor (Kappa values -0.07 for conjunctiva pallor and 0.20 for tongue pallor), meaning that pallor is an unreliable sign of diagnosis of anemia. On the surface, these data appear to be available for analysis using methods for 2 × 2 tables (if the variable is classified) or correlation (if numerical) that we have previously explained in this series. [1.2] However, further examination would show that this is not true. In these two methods, the two measures relate to different variables for each individual (for example. B exposure and result, height and weight, etc.) whereas, in the `agreement studies`, the two measures refer to the same variable (for example). B, breast x-rays, measured by two radiologists or hemoglobin using two methods). Consider a situation in which we wish to assess the consistency between hemoglobin measurements (g/dL) with a hemoglobinometer on the hospital bed and the formal photometric laboratory technique in ten people [Table 3].

The Bland-Altman diagram for these data shows the difference between the two methods for each person [Figure 1]. The average difference between values is 1.07 g/dL (with a standard deviation of 0.36 g/dL) and 95% agreements are 0.35 to 1.79. This implies that the hemoglobin level of a given person, as measured by photometry, could vary from 0.35 g/dL greater than 1.79 g/dL (this is the case for 95% of people; for 5% of people, differences could be outside these limits). This of course means that the two techniques cannot be used as a substitute for each other. It is important that there is no single test for what constitutes acceptable limits of the agreement; it is a clinical decision and depends on the measured variable. The objective of the tutor`s study is therefore to determine whether these independent variables (revision time and IQ) cause a change in dependent variables (i.e. student test results).

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